Winterkrieg

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30. April 2012 ist bereits impliziert, ebenfalls an.

Winterkrieg

Der finnische Winterkrieg sumflower.eu Ze40f. Ende November , drei Monate nach dem deutschen Überfall auf Polen, greift die. Besonders die "Schlacht von Suomussalmi" im finnisch-sowjetischen Krieg /​ führte zu einem Imageschaden der Sowjetunion und. Vor 75 Jahren, am November , überschritten sowjetische Truppen die finnische Grenze und zogen in den sogenannten „Winterkrieg“.

Winterkrieg „Die Finnen mähten Rotarmisten fast im Schlaf nieder“

Der Winterkrieg (finnisch talvisota, schwedisch vinterkriget, russisch Зимняя война Simnjaja woina) wurde vom November bis zum März Der Winterkrieg wurde vom November bis zum März zwischen der Sowjetunion und Finnland ausgetragen. Er wird auch als Sowjetisch-Finnischer Krieg oder „Sowjetisch-Finnländischer Krieg“ bezeichnet. Mit Übermacht griff die Rote Armee Ende Finnland an. Aber die Invasion wurde zu einem Desaster. Stalins Säuberungen im. ARCHIV - Finnische Truppen in Schneeuniformen gehen im sogenannten Winterkrieg an der Frontlinie in Stellung und. Finnische Truppen in. Besonders die "Schlacht von Suomussalmi" im finnisch-sowjetischen Krieg /​ führte zu einem Imageschaden der Sowjetunion und. Die Sowjetunion habe Europas Völker im Zweiten Weltkrieg von Gewalt und Krieg befreit, behauptet Russlands Führung. Der Winterkrieg. Winterkrieg. ()2 Std. 6 Min November Stalin befiehlt den Angriff auf Finnland, an der Grenze marschieren sowjetische Soldaten auf.

Winterkrieg

ARCHIV - Finnische Truppen in Schneeuniformen gehen im sogenannten Winterkrieg an der Frontlinie in Stellung und. Finnische Truppen in. Vor 75 Jahren, am November , überschritten sowjetische Truppen die finnische Grenze und zogen in den sogenannten „Winterkrieg“. Der Winterkrieg (finnisch talvisota, schwedisch vinterkriget, russisch Зимняя война Simnjaja woina) wurde vom November bis zum März

Nachdem Finnland die unannehmbaren Forderungen abgelehnt hatte, griff die Rote Armee am November das Nachbarland an.

Die Invasion bedeutete eine sowjetische Verletzung des Deutsch-sowjetischen Nichtangriffspaktes , weil der sowjetische Angriffskrieg eine dem Nichtangriffspakt zuwiderlaufende, nicht vereinbarte, gegen Deutschland gerichtete aggressive Bolschewisierung und Militarisierung bedeutete.

Im Winter marschierten die Sowjet-Bolschewisten mit einer Im Schnee schlichen sich die finnischen Scharfschützen getarnt an die russischen Truppen heran, nahmen sich ihre Ziele vor und flohen so schnell wie möglich auf ihren Skiern.

Da die Russen sich im Wald nicht auskannten, konnten sie keine klare Front bilden und wurden aus allen Richtungen beschossen. Viele finnische Scharfschützen waren es gewohnt, Eiderenten zu jagen.

Das Anpirschen lag in ihrer Natur, und der Versuch, ihre Beute so wenig wie möglich zu beschädigen, machte sie zu hervorragenden Scharfschützen.

Hayha war ein kleiner Bauer, der mehrere Auszeichnungen wegen seiner Fähigkeiten erhielt. Sein Heldenmut kostete die Russen mehr als Mann.

Ursprüngliches Kriegsziel der Sowjetunion war die Besetzung des gesamten finnischen Staatsgebiets. Erst nach umfassenden Umgruppierungen und Verstärkungen konnte die Rote Armee im Februar eine entscheidende Offensive beginnen und die finnischen Stellungen durchbrechen.

Am März beendeten die Parteien den Krieg mit dem Friedensvertrag von Moskau. Rund Die Gründe für den aus sowjetischer Sicht schlechten Kriegsverlauf sind umstritten.

Für die Finnen wurde die Abwehr des sowjetischen Angriffes zu einem Mittel zur Überwindung der gesellschaftlichen Spaltung nach dem Bürgerkrieg.

Demzufolge sollte das Deutsche Reich zu einer Reaktion provoziert werden, um es trotz der sowjetischen Verletzung des Nichtangriffspaktes als Aggressor erscheinen zu lassen.

Demnach erscheint der im März geschlossene Frieden mit Finnland nur als eine Änderung der kriegerischen Pläne gegen das Dritte Reich [2]. Most Soviet soldiers had proper winter clothes, but this was not the case with every unit.

In the battle of Suomussalmi , thousands of Soviet soldiers died of frostbite. The Soviet troops also lacked skill in skiing, so soldiers were restricted to movement by road and were forced to move in long columns.

The Red Army lacked proper winter tents, and troops had to sleep in improvised shelters. The Red Army was superior in numbers and materiel, but Finns used the advantages of speed, manoeuvre warfare and economy of force.

Particularly on the Ladoga Karelia front and during the battle of Raate road , the Finns isolated smaller portions of numerically superior Soviet forces.

With Soviet forces divided into smaller groups, the Finns dealt with them individually and attacked from all sides. The men were freezing and starving and endured poor sanitary conditions.

Historian William R. Trotter described these conditions as follows: "The Soviet soldier had no choice. If he refused to fight, he would be shot. If he tried to sneak through the forest, he would freeze to death.

And surrender was no option for him; Soviet propaganda had told him how the Finns would torture prisoners to death. Some of the pockets of encircled soviet soldiers held out for weeks and even months, binding a huge number of Finnish forces.

The terrain on the Karelian Isthmus did not allow guerrilla tactics, so the Finns were forced to resort to the more conventional Mannerheim Line, with its flanks protected by large bodies of water.

Soviet propaganda claimed that it was as strong as or even stronger than the Maginot Line. Finnish historians, for their part, have belittled the line's strength, insisting that it was mostly conventional trenches and log-covered dugouts.

Many were extended in the late s. Despite these defensive preparations, even the most fortified section of the Mannerheim Line had only one reinforced-concrete bunker per kilometre.

Overall, the line was weaker than similar lines in mainland Europe. On the eastern side of the Isthmus, the Red Army attempted to break through the Mannerheim Line at the battle of Taipale.

On the western side, Soviet units faced the Finnish line at Summa, near the city of Vyborg , on 16 December.

The Finns had built 41 reinforced-concrete bunkers in the Summa area, making the defensive line in this area stronger than anywhere else on the Karelian Isthmus.

Because of a mistake in planning, the nearby Munasuo swamp had a 1-kilometre 0. The Finns remained in their trenches, allowing the Soviet tanks to move freely behind the Finnish line, as the Finns had no proper anti-tank weapons.

The Finns succeeded in repelling the main Soviet assault. The tanks, stranded behind enemy lines, attacked the strongpoints at random until they were eventually destroyed, 20 in all.

By 22 December, the battle ended in a Finnish victory. The Soviet advance was stopped at the Mannerheim Line. Red Army troops suffered from poor morale and a shortage of supplies, eventually refusing to participate in more suicidal frontal attacks.

The Finns, led by General Harald Öhquist , decided to launch a counter-attack and encircle three Soviet divisions into a motti near Vyborg on 23 December.

Öhquist's plan was bold; however it failed. The Finns lost 1, men, and the Soviets were later estimated to have lost a similar number.

They also had a support group of three brigades , bringing their total strength to over 30, The Soviets deployed a division for almost every road leading west to the Finnish border.

The Soviets had a advantage in manpower and a advantage in artillery, as well as air supremacy. Finnish forces panicked and retreated in front of the overwhelming Red Army.

The ensuing battle of Kollaa lasted until the end of the war. A memorable quote, "Kollaa holds" Finnish : Kollaa kestää became a legendary motto among Finns.

In the south, two Soviet divisions were united on the northern side of the Lake Ladoga coastal road. As before, these divisions were trapped as the more mobile Finnish units counterattacked from the north to flank the Soviet columns.

On 19 December, the Finns temporarily ceased their assaults due to exhaustion. They were expecting reinforcements and supplies to arrive by air.

As the Finns lacked the necessary heavy artillery equipment and were short of men, they often did not directly attack the mottis they had created; instead, they worked to eliminate only the most dangerous threats.

Often the motti tactic was not applied as a strategy, but as a Finnish adaptation to the behaviour of Soviet troops under fire.

Some specialist Finnish soldiers were called in to attack the mottis ; the most famous of them was Major Matti Aarnio , or "Motti-Matti" as he became known.

The Finns used effective guerrilla tactics, taking special advantage of their superior skiing skills and snow-white layered clothing and executing surprise ambushes and raids.

By the end of December, the Soviets decided to retreat and transfer resources to more critical fronts. The Suomussalmi—Raate engagement was a double operation [] which would later be used by military academics as a classic example of what well-led troops and innovative tactics can do against a much larger adversary.

Suomussalmi was a town of 4, with long lakes, wild forests and few roads. The Finnish command believed that the Soviets would not attack here, but the Red Army committed two divisions to the Kainuu area with orders to cross the wilderness, capture the city of Oulu and effectively cut Finland in two.

There were two roads leading to Suomussalmi from the frontier: the northern Juntusranta road and the southern Raate road. The battle of Raate road, which occurred during the month-long battle of Suomussalmi, resulted in one of the largest Soviet losses in the Winter War.

The Soviet 44th and parts of the rd Rifle Division, comprising about 14, troops, [] were almost completely destroyed by a Finnish ambush as they marched along the forest road.

A small unit blocked the Soviet advance while Finnish Colonel Hjalmar Siilasvuo and his 9th Division cut off the retreat route, split the enemy force into smaller mottis , and then proceeded to destroy the remnants in detail as they retreated.

The Soviets suffered 7,—9, casualties; [] the Finnish units, The Finnish area of Lapland , striding the Arctic Circle , is sparsely developed, with little daylight and persistent snow-cover during winter; the Finns expected nothing more than raiding parties and reconnaissance patrols.

Instead, the Soviets sent full divisions. The group was placed under the command of Kurt Wallenius. In southern Lapland, near the village of Salla, the Soviet 88th and nd Divisions, totalling 35, men, advanced.

In the battle of Salla , the Soviets proceeded easily to Salla, where the road forked. The northern branch moved toward Pelkosenniemi while the rest approached Kemijärvi.

On 17 December, the Soviet northern group, comprising an infantry regiment, a battalion, and a company of tanks, was outflanked by a Finnish battalion.

The nd retreated, abandoning much of its heavy equipment and vehicles. Following this success, the Finns shuttled reinforcements to the defensive line in front of Kemijärvi.

The Soviets hammered the defensive line without success. The Finns counter-attacked, and the Soviets retreated to a new defensive line where they stayed for the rest of the war.

To the north was Finland's only ice-free port in the Arctic, Petsamo. The Finns lacked the manpower to defend it fully, as the main front was distant at the Karelian Isthmus.

The Finns abandoned Petsamo and concentrated on delaying actions. The area was treeless, windy, and relatively low, offering little defensible terrain.

The almost constant darkness and extreme temperatures of the Lapland winter benefited the Finns, who executed guerrilla attacks against Soviet supply lines and patrols.

As a result, the Soviet movements were halted by the efforts of one-fifth as many Finns. The USSR enjoyed air superiority throughout the war.

The Soviet Air Force , supporting the Red Army's invasion with about 2, aircraft the most common type being Tupolev SB , was not as effective as the Soviets might have hoped.

The material damage by the bomb raids was slight as Finland offered few valuable targets for strategic bombing. Often, targets were village depots with little value.

The country had few modern highways in the interior, therefore making the railways the main targets for bombers. Rail tracks were cut thousands of times but the Finns hastily repaired them and service resumed within a matter of hours.

The largest bombing raid against the capital of Finland, Helsinki , occurred on the first day of the war. The capital was bombed only a few times thereafter.

All in all, Soviet bombings cost Finland five percent of its total man-hour production. Nevertheless, Soviet air attacks affected thousands of civilians, killing The city of Vyborg, a major Soviet objective close to the Karelian Isthmus front, was almost levelled by nearly 12, bombs.

In January , the Soviet Pravda newspaper continued to stress that no civilian targets in Finland had been struck, even accidentally.

The Soviet Air Force flew approximately 44, sorties during the war. At the beginning of the war, Finland had a small air force, with only combat planes fit for duty.

Missions were limited, and fighter aircraft were mainly used to repel Soviet bombers. Strategic bombings doubled as opportunities for military reconnaissance.

Old-fashioned and few in number, aircraft offered little support for Finnish ground troops. In spite of losses, the number of planes in the Finnish Air Force rose by over 50 percent by the end of the war.

Finnish fighter pilots often flew their motley collection of planes into Soviet formations that outnumbered them 10 or even 20 times.

Finnish fighters shot down a confirmed Soviet aircraft, while losing 62 of their own. Air-raid warnings were given by Finnish women organised by the Lotta Svärd.

There was little naval activity during the Winter War. The Baltic Sea began to freeze over by the end of December, impeding the movement of warships ; by mid-winter, only ice breakers and submarines could still move.

The other reason for low naval activity was the nature of Soviet Navy forces in the area. The Baltic Fleet was a coastal defence force which did not have the training, logistical structure, or landing craft to undertake large-scale operations.

The Baltic Fleet possessed two battleships , one heavy cruiser , almost 20 destroyers , 50 motor torpedo boats , 52 submarines, and other miscellaneous vessels.

The Finnish Navy was a coastal defence force with two coastal defence ships , five submarines, four gunboats , seven motor torpedo boats, one minelayer and six minesweepers and at least 5 icebreakers.

The two coastal defence ships, Ilmarinen and Väinämöinen , were moved to harbour in Turku where they were used to bolster the air defence. Their anti-aircraft guns shot down one or two planes over the city, and the ships remained there for the rest of the war.

Soviet aircraft bombed Finnish vessels and harbours and dropped mines into Finnish seaways. Still, only five merchant ships were lost to Soviet action.

World War II, which had started before the Winter War, proved more costly for the Finnish merchant vessels, with 26 lost due to hostile action in and Finnish coastal artillery batteries defended important harbours and naval bases.

That day, the weather was fair and visibility was excellent. The Finns spotted the Soviet cruiser Kirov and two destroyers. After five minutes of firing by the coastal guns, the cruiser had been damaged by near misses and retreated.

The destroyers remained undamaged, but the Kirov suffered 17 dead and 30 wounded. The Soviets already knew the locations of the Finnish coastal batteries, but were surprised by their range.

Coastal artillery had a greater effect on land by reinforcing defence in conjunction with army artillery. Two sets of fortress artillery made significant contributions to the early battles on the Karelian Isthmus and in Ladoga Karelia.

The fortress of Koivisto provided similar support from the southwestern coast of the Isthmus. Joseph Stalin was not pleased with the results of December in the Finnish campaign.

The Red Army had been humiliated. By the third week of the war, Soviet propaganda was working hard to explain the failures of the Soviet military to the populace: blaming bad terrain and harsh climate, and falsely claiming that the Mannerheim Line was stronger than the Maginot Line, and that the Americans had sent 1, of their best pilots to Finland.

Chief of Staff Boris Shaposhnikov was given full authority over operations in the Finnish theatre, and he ordered the suspension of frontal assaults in late December.

Kliment Voroshilov was replaced with Semyon Timoshenko as the commander of the Soviet forces in the war on 7 January.

The main focus of the Soviet attack was switched to the Karelian Isthmus. Timoshenko and Zhdanov reorganised and tightened control between different branches of service in the Red Army.

They also changed tactical doctrines to meet the realities of the situation. All Soviet forces on the Karelian Isthmus were divided into two armies: the 7th and the 13th Army.

Tactics would be basic: an armoured wedge for the initial breakthrough, followed by the main infantry and vehicle assault force.

The Red Army would prepare by pinpointing the Finnish frontline fortifications. The rd Rifle Division then rehearsed the assault on life-size mock-ups.

The Soviets shipped large numbers of new tanks and artillery pieces to the theatre. Troops were increased from ten divisions to 25—26 divisions with six or seven tank brigades and several independent tank platoons as support, totalling , soldiers.

Although the Karelian Isthmus front was less active in January than in December, the Soviets increased bombardments, wearing down the defenders and softening their fortifications.

During daylight hours, the Finns took shelter inside their fortifications from the bombardments and repaired damage during the night.

The situation led quickly to war exhaustion among the Finns, who lost over 3, soldiers in trench warfare. The Soviets also made occasional small infantry assaults with one or two companies.

On 1 February, the Soviets further escalated their artillery and air bombardments. Although the Soviets refined their tactics and morale improved, the generals were still willing to accept massive losses to reach their objectives.

Attacks were screened by smoke, heavy artillery, and armour support, but the infantry charged in the open and in dense formations.

The Finns could not easily eliminate tanks if infantry troops protected them. On 11 February, the Soviets had approximately , soldiers, 3, artillery pieces, 3, tanks and 1, aircraft deployed on the Karelian Isthmus.

The Red Army was constantly receiving new recruits after the breakthrough. One by one, the defenders' strongholds crumbled under the Soviet attacks and the Finns were forced to retreat.

On 15 February, Mannerheim authorised a general retreat of the II Corps to a fallback line of defence. Although the Finns attempted to re-open negotiations with Moscow by every means during the war, the Soviets did not respond.

Wuolijoki departed for Stockholm and met Kollontai secretly at a hotel. Soon Molotov decided to extend recognition to the Ryti—Tanner government as the legal government of Finland and put an end to the puppet Terijoki Government of Kuusinen that the Soviets had set up.

By mid-February, it became clear that the Finnish forces were rapidly approaching exhaustion. For the Soviets, casualties were high, the situation was a source of political embarrassment to the Soviet regime, and there was a risk of Franco-British intervention.

With the spring thaw approaching, the Soviet forces risked becoming bogged down in the forests. German representatives, not aware that the negotiations were underway, suggested on 17 February that Finland negotiate with the Soviet Union.

Both Germany and Sweden were keen to see an end to the Winter War. The Germans feared losing the iron ore fields in Northern Sweden and threatened to attack at once if the Swedes granted the Allied forces right of passage.

The Germans even had an invasion plan against Scandinavian countries, called Studie Nord , which later became the full Operation Weserübung.

On 25 February, the Soviet peace terms were spelt out in detail. On 29 February, the Finnish Government accepted the Soviet terms in principle and was willing to enter into negotiations.

The Finns proposed an armistice on 6 March, but the Soviets, wanting to keep the pressure on the Finnish Government, declined the offer.

The Finnish peace delegation travelled to Moscow via Stockholm and arrived on 7 March. The USSR made further demands as their military position was strong and improving.

On 9 March, the Finnish military situation on the Karelian Isthmus was dire as troops were experiencing heavy casualties. Artillery ammunition was exhausted and weapons were wearing out.

The Finnish government, noting that the hoped-for Franco-British military expedition would not arrive in time, as Norway and Sweden had not given the Allies right of passage, had little choice but to accept the Soviet terms.

When he signed the document, the tormented president uttered the well-known words: "Let the hand wither that signs this monstrous treaty!

Helsinki time. The area included Finland's fourth-largest city of Vyborg, much of Finland's industrialised territory, and significant land still held by Finland's military—all in all, 11 percent of the territory and 30 percent of the economic assets of pre-war Finland.

The Hanko peninsula was leased to the Soviet Union as a military base for 30 years. The region of Petsamo, captured by the Red Army during the war, was returned to Finland according to the treaty.

Finnish concessions and territorial losses exceeded Soviet pre-war demands. In exchange, the Soviet Union proposed ceding Repola and Porajärvi from Eastern Karelia, an area twice as large as the territories originally demanded from the Finns.

World opinion largely supported the Finnish cause, and the Soviet aggression was generally deemed unjustified.

Several foreign organisations sent material aid, and many countries granted credit and military materiel to Finland.

Nazi Germany allowed arms to pass through its territory to Finland, but after a Swedish newspaper made this public, Adolf Hitler initiated a policy of silence towards Finland, as part of improved German—Soviet relations following the signing of the Molotov—Ribbentrop Pact.

The largest foreign contingent came from neighboring Sweden, which provided nearly 8, volunteers during the war. The Swedish Volunteer Corps , formed of Swedes, Norwegians soldiers and Danes 1, soldiers , fought on the northern front at Salla during the last weeks of the war.

In total, Finland received 12, volunteers, 50 of whom died during the war. France had been one of the earliest supporters of Finland during the Winter War.

The French saw an opportunity to weaken Germany's major ally via a Finnish attack on the Soviet Union. France had another motive, preferring to have a major war in a remote part of Europe rather than on French soil.

Another proposal was a massive air strike with Turkish co-operation against the Caucasus oil fields. The British, for their part, wanted to block the flow of iron ore from Swedish mines to Germany as the Swedes supplied up to 40 percent of Germany's iron demand.

In his plan, Daladier created linkage between the war in Finland and the iron ore in Sweden. In turn, Nazi Germany could occupy both Norway and Sweden.

These two dictatorships could divide Scandinavia between them, as they had already done with Poland. The main motivation of the French and the British were to reduce the German war-making ability.

The Military Co-ordination Committee met on 20 December in London, and two days later the French plan was put forward. Norway and Sweden rejected the offer on 5 January The expedition troops would disembark at the Norwegian port of Narvik and proceed by rail toward Finland, passing through the Swedish ore fields on the way.

This demand was sent to Norway and Sweden on 6 January, but it was likewise rejected six days later. Stymied but not yet dissuaded from the possibility of action, the Allies formulated a final plan on 29 January.

First, the Finns would make a formal request for assistance. Then, the Allies would ask Norway and Sweden for permission to move the "volunteers" across their territory.

Finally, to protect the supply line from German actions, the Allies would send units ashore at Namsos , Bergen , and Trondheim. The operation would have required , British and 35, French soldiers with naval and air support.

The supply convoys would sail on 12 March and the landings would begin on 20 March. The day war had a profound and depressing effect in Finland.

Meaningful international support was minimal and arrived late, and the German blockade had prevented most armament shipments.

Orders had already been issued to prepare a retreat to the next line of defence in the Taipale sector. Estimates of how long the Red Army could have been delayed by retreat-and-stand operations varied from a few days to a few weeks, [] [] or to a couple of months at most.

Immediately after the war, Helsinki officially announced 19, dead. The Soviet Union repatriated Finns after the War. The role of frontline political commissars was reduced and old-fashioned ranks and forms of discipline were reintroduced.

Clothing, equipment and tactics for winter operations were improved. Not all of the reforms had been completed by the time Germans initiated Operation Barbarossa 15 months later.

During the period between the Winter War and perestroika in the late s, Soviet historiography relied solely on Vyacheslav Molotov's speeches on the Winter War.

In his radio speech of 29 November , Molotov argued that the Soviet Union had tried to negotiate guarantees of security for Leningrad for two months.

The Finns had taken a hostile stance to "please foreign imperialists". Finland had undertaken military provocation, and the Soviet Union could no longer abide by non-aggression pacts.

According to Molotov, the Soviet Union did not want to occupy or annex Finland; the goal was purely to secure Leningrad.

The official Soviet figure in for their dead was 48, Baryshnikov , 53, dead. In , Grigoriy Krivosheyev claimed , dead and missing, and total casualties of , with , wounded.

In , he revised the estimate of dead to , [20] and in , he updated the estimate to , irretrievable losses. Between 1, and 3, Soviet tanks were destroyed.

The official figure was tank casualties, but Yuri Kilin found a note received by the head of the Soviet General Staff, Boris Shaposhnikov, which reports 3, tank casualties and tanks destroyed.

According to the Finnish historian Ohto Manninen , the 7th Soviet Army lost 1, tanks during the breakthrough battles of the Mannerheim Line in mid-winter.

In the immediate aftermath of the war, the Finnish estimate of the number of lost Soviet tanks was 1,—1, The Winter War was a political success for the Germans.

The German policy of neutrality was not popular in the homeland, and relations with Italy had suffered. After the Moscow Peace Treaty, Germany improved its ties with Finland, and within two weeks Finno-German relations were at the top of the agenda.

In June , Hitler declared, 'we have only to kick in the door and the whole rotten structure will come crashing down'.

The Winter War laid bare the disorganisation and ineffectiveness of the Red Army as well as of the Allies. The Anglo-French Supreme War Council was unable to formulate a workable plan, revealing its unsuitability to make effective war in either Britain or France.

This failure led to the collapse of the Daladier Government in France. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Winter War disambiguation.

Scandinavia in WWII. Finland — Winter War. Main article: Background of the Winter War. Neutral countries.

Germany and annexed countries. Soviet Union and annexed countries. Neutral countries with military bases illegally occupied by Soviet Union in September and October Main article: Shelling of Mainila.

See also: Red Army. See also: Finnish Army. See also: Climate of Finland and Cold-weather warfare. See also: Sissi Finnish light infantry.

Finnish brigade X or division XX. Soviet division XX. Main article: Aerial warfare in the Winter War. Main article: Naval warfare in the Winter War.

Finnish corps XXX or Oesch 's coast group. Main article: Moscow Peace Treaty. Main article: Foreign support of Finland in the Winter War.

Main article: Franco-British plans for intervention in the Winter War. Main article: Aftermath of the Winter War. See also: Cross of Sorrow.

The Finnish Army had only , rifles total , firearms , but White Guards brought their own rifles over , rifles, total , firearms to the war.

The Finnish Army reached its maximum strength at the beginning of March with , soldiers in uniform. These were unsuitable for the war and they were subsequently used as fixed pillboxes.

The Finns bought 32 British Vickers 6-Ton tanks during —39, but without weapons. Weapons were intended to be manufactured and installed in Finland.

Only 10 tanks were fit for combat at the beginning of the conflict. Almost aeroplanes were used for flight training purposes, not suitable for combat, or under repair.

In total, the Finns had aircraft and 43 reserve aircraft. The main battlefield was the Karelian Isthmus where the Soviets deployed 1, tanks.

At the end of the war the Soviets had 6, tanks and 1, armoured cars. The most common tank type was T , but also BT type was very common.

Zimnyaya voyna. Library of Congress ' catalogue see authority control. Ahtiainen, Ilkka 16 July Helsinki Times. Archived from the original on 29 June Retrieved 5 November Bullock, Alan Hitler and Stalin: Parallel Lives.

Vintage Books. Chubaryan, A. In Kulkov, E. Stalin and the Soviet-Finnish War, — Frank Cass. Clemmesen, Michael H. Conquest, Robert []. Oxford University Press, US.

Coox, Alvin D. Nomonhan: Japan against Russia, Stanford University Press. Dallin, David

„Winterkrieg“ basiert auf dem gleichnamigen Roman von Antti Tuuri. Der Film war Finnlands Oscar-Beitrag, wurde für den Goldenen Bären der Berlinale nominiert​. Der finnische Winterkrieg sumflower.eu Ze40f. Ende November , drei Monate nach dem deutschen Überfall auf Polen, greift die. Vor 75 Jahren, am November , überschritten sowjetische Truppen die finnische Grenze und zogen in den sogenannten „Winterkrieg“.

Die Gründe für den aus sowjetischer Sicht schlechten Kriegsverlauf sind umstritten. Für die Finnen wurde die Abwehr des sowjetischen Angriffes zu einem Mittel zur Überwindung der gesellschaftlichen Spaltung nach dem Bürgerkrieg.

Demzufolge sollte das Deutsche Reich zu einer Reaktion provoziert werden, um es trotz der sowjetischen Verletzung des Nichtangriffspaktes als Aggressor erscheinen zu lassen.

Demnach erscheint der im März geschlossene Frieden mit Finnland nur als eine Änderung der kriegerischen Pläne gegen das Dritte Reich [2].

Insgesamt wurden durch den Waffenstillstand etwa Die vertriebenen Karelier wurden im übrigen Finnland angesiedelt. Jedem einzelnen karelischen Dorf bzw.

Gemeinde wurde eine Ansiedlungsgemeinde in Finnland angewiesen. Ein Teil der Vertriebenen und ihre Nachfahren leben heute im Ausland. Die Kultur der Vertriebenen wird heute noch in Vereinen wie z.

Wechseln zu: Navigation , Suche. Kategorien : Winterkrieg Krieg Jahrhundert Finnland Sowjetunion Vertreibung. Navigationsmenü Meine Werkzeuge Anmelden.

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Juli um Uhr bearbeitet. Datenschutz Über Metapedia Haftungsausschluss. The Finnish area of Lapland , striding the Arctic Circle , is sparsely developed, with little daylight and persistent snow-cover during winter; the Finns expected nothing more than raiding parties and reconnaissance patrols.

Instead, the Soviets sent full divisions. The group was placed under the command of Kurt Wallenius. In southern Lapland, near the village of Salla, the Soviet 88th and nd Divisions, totalling 35, men, advanced.

In the battle of Salla , the Soviets proceeded easily to Salla, where the road forked. The northern branch moved toward Pelkosenniemi while the rest approached Kemijärvi.

On 17 December, the Soviet northern group, comprising an infantry regiment, a battalion, and a company of tanks, was outflanked by a Finnish battalion.

The nd retreated, abandoning much of its heavy equipment and vehicles. Following this success, the Finns shuttled reinforcements to the defensive line in front of Kemijärvi.

The Soviets hammered the defensive line without success. The Finns counter-attacked, and the Soviets retreated to a new defensive line where they stayed for the rest of the war.

To the north was Finland's only ice-free port in the Arctic, Petsamo. The Finns lacked the manpower to defend it fully, as the main front was distant at the Karelian Isthmus.

The Finns abandoned Petsamo and concentrated on delaying actions. The area was treeless, windy, and relatively low, offering little defensible terrain.

The almost constant darkness and extreme temperatures of the Lapland winter benefited the Finns, who executed guerrilla attacks against Soviet supply lines and patrols.

As a result, the Soviet movements were halted by the efforts of one-fifth as many Finns. The USSR enjoyed air superiority throughout the war. The Soviet Air Force , supporting the Red Army's invasion with about 2, aircraft the most common type being Tupolev SB , was not as effective as the Soviets might have hoped.

The material damage by the bomb raids was slight as Finland offered few valuable targets for strategic bombing.

Often, targets were village depots with little value. The country had few modern highways in the interior, therefore making the railways the main targets for bombers.

Rail tracks were cut thousands of times but the Finns hastily repaired them and service resumed within a matter of hours.

The largest bombing raid against the capital of Finland, Helsinki , occurred on the first day of the war. The capital was bombed only a few times thereafter.

All in all, Soviet bombings cost Finland five percent of its total man-hour production. Nevertheless, Soviet air attacks affected thousands of civilians, killing The city of Vyborg, a major Soviet objective close to the Karelian Isthmus front, was almost levelled by nearly 12, bombs.

In January , the Soviet Pravda newspaper continued to stress that no civilian targets in Finland had been struck, even accidentally.

The Soviet Air Force flew approximately 44, sorties during the war. At the beginning of the war, Finland had a small air force, with only combat planes fit for duty.

Missions were limited, and fighter aircraft were mainly used to repel Soviet bombers. Strategic bombings doubled as opportunities for military reconnaissance.

Old-fashioned and few in number, aircraft offered little support for Finnish ground troops. In spite of losses, the number of planes in the Finnish Air Force rose by over 50 percent by the end of the war.

Finnish fighter pilots often flew their motley collection of planes into Soviet formations that outnumbered them 10 or even 20 times.

Finnish fighters shot down a confirmed Soviet aircraft, while losing 62 of their own. Air-raid warnings were given by Finnish women organised by the Lotta Svärd.

There was little naval activity during the Winter War. The Baltic Sea began to freeze over by the end of December, impeding the movement of warships ; by mid-winter, only ice breakers and submarines could still move.

The other reason for low naval activity was the nature of Soviet Navy forces in the area. The Baltic Fleet was a coastal defence force which did not have the training, logistical structure, or landing craft to undertake large-scale operations.

The Baltic Fleet possessed two battleships , one heavy cruiser , almost 20 destroyers , 50 motor torpedo boats , 52 submarines, and other miscellaneous vessels.

The Finnish Navy was a coastal defence force with two coastal defence ships , five submarines, four gunboats , seven motor torpedo boats, one minelayer and six minesweepers and at least 5 icebreakers.

The two coastal defence ships, Ilmarinen and Väinämöinen , were moved to harbour in Turku where they were used to bolster the air defence.

Their anti-aircraft guns shot down one or two planes over the city, and the ships remained there for the rest of the war. Soviet aircraft bombed Finnish vessels and harbours and dropped mines into Finnish seaways.

Still, only five merchant ships were lost to Soviet action. World War II, which had started before the Winter War, proved more costly for the Finnish merchant vessels, with 26 lost due to hostile action in and Finnish coastal artillery batteries defended important harbours and naval bases.

That day, the weather was fair and visibility was excellent. The Finns spotted the Soviet cruiser Kirov and two destroyers.

After five minutes of firing by the coastal guns, the cruiser had been damaged by near misses and retreated.

The destroyers remained undamaged, but the Kirov suffered 17 dead and 30 wounded. The Soviets already knew the locations of the Finnish coastal batteries, but were surprised by their range.

Coastal artillery had a greater effect on land by reinforcing defence in conjunction with army artillery. Two sets of fortress artillery made significant contributions to the early battles on the Karelian Isthmus and in Ladoga Karelia.

The fortress of Koivisto provided similar support from the southwestern coast of the Isthmus. Joseph Stalin was not pleased with the results of December in the Finnish campaign.

The Red Army had been humiliated. By the third week of the war, Soviet propaganda was working hard to explain the failures of the Soviet military to the populace: blaming bad terrain and harsh climate, and falsely claiming that the Mannerheim Line was stronger than the Maginot Line, and that the Americans had sent 1, of their best pilots to Finland.

Chief of Staff Boris Shaposhnikov was given full authority over operations in the Finnish theatre, and he ordered the suspension of frontal assaults in late December.

Kliment Voroshilov was replaced with Semyon Timoshenko as the commander of the Soviet forces in the war on 7 January.

The main focus of the Soviet attack was switched to the Karelian Isthmus. Timoshenko and Zhdanov reorganised and tightened control between different branches of service in the Red Army.

They also changed tactical doctrines to meet the realities of the situation. All Soviet forces on the Karelian Isthmus were divided into two armies: the 7th and the 13th Army.

Tactics would be basic: an armoured wedge for the initial breakthrough, followed by the main infantry and vehicle assault force. The Red Army would prepare by pinpointing the Finnish frontline fortifications.

The rd Rifle Division then rehearsed the assault on life-size mock-ups. The Soviets shipped large numbers of new tanks and artillery pieces to the theatre.

Troops were increased from ten divisions to 25—26 divisions with six or seven tank brigades and several independent tank platoons as support, totalling , soldiers.

Although the Karelian Isthmus front was less active in January than in December, the Soviets increased bombardments, wearing down the defenders and softening their fortifications.

During daylight hours, the Finns took shelter inside their fortifications from the bombardments and repaired damage during the night. The situation led quickly to war exhaustion among the Finns, who lost over 3, soldiers in trench warfare.

The Soviets also made occasional small infantry assaults with one or two companies. On 1 February, the Soviets further escalated their artillery and air bombardments.

Although the Soviets refined their tactics and morale improved, the generals were still willing to accept massive losses to reach their objectives.

Attacks were screened by smoke, heavy artillery, and armour support, but the infantry charged in the open and in dense formations.

The Finns could not easily eliminate tanks if infantry troops protected them. On 11 February, the Soviets had approximately , soldiers, 3, artillery pieces, 3, tanks and 1, aircraft deployed on the Karelian Isthmus.

The Red Army was constantly receiving new recruits after the breakthrough. One by one, the defenders' strongholds crumbled under the Soviet attacks and the Finns were forced to retreat.

On 15 February, Mannerheim authorised a general retreat of the II Corps to a fallback line of defence.

Although the Finns attempted to re-open negotiations with Moscow by every means during the war, the Soviets did not respond. Wuolijoki departed for Stockholm and met Kollontai secretly at a hotel.

Soon Molotov decided to extend recognition to the Ryti—Tanner government as the legal government of Finland and put an end to the puppet Terijoki Government of Kuusinen that the Soviets had set up.

By mid-February, it became clear that the Finnish forces were rapidly approaching exhaustion. For the Soviets, casualties were high, the situation was a source of political embarrassment to the Soviet regime, and there was a risk of Franco-British intervention.

With the spring thaw approaching, the Soviet forces risked becoming bogged down in the forests. German representatives, not aware that the negotiations were underway, suggested on 17 February that Finland negotiate with the Soviet Union.

Both Germany and Sweden were keen to see an end to the Winter War. The Germans feared losing the iron ore fields in Northern Sweden and threatened to attack at once if the Swedes granted the Allied forces right of passage.

The Germans even had an invasion plan against Scandinavian countries, called Studie Nord , which later became the full Operation Weserübung.

On 25 February, the Soviet peace terms were spelt out in detail. On 29 February, the Finnish Government accepted the Soviet terms in principle and was willing to enter into negotiations.

The Finns proposed an armistice on 6 March, but the Soviets, wanting to keep the pressure on the Finnish Government, declined the offer.

The Finnish peace delegation travelled to Moscow via Stockholm and arrived on 7 March. The USSR made further demands as their military position was strong and improving.

On 9 March, the Finnish military situation on the Karelian Isthmus was dire as troops were experiencing heavy casualties. Artillery ammunition was exhausted and weapons were wearing out.

The Finnish government, noting that the hoped-for Franco-British military expedition would not arrive in time, as Norway and Sweden had not given the Allies right of passage, had little choice but to accept the Soviet terms.

When he signed the document, the tormented president uttered the well-known words: "Let the hand wither that signs this monstrous treaty!

Helsinki time. The area included Finland's fourth-largest city of Vyborg, much of Finland's industrialised territory, and significant land still held by Finland's military—all in all, 11 percent of the territory and 30 percent of the economic assets of pre-war Finland.

The Hanko peninsula was leased to the Soviet Union as a military base for 30 years. The region of Petsamo, captured by the Red Army during the war, was returned to Finland according to the treaty.

Finnish concessions and territorial losses exceeded Soviet pre-war demands. In exchange, the Soviet Union proposed ceding Repola and Porajärvi from Eastern Karelia, an area twice as large as the territories originally demanded from the Finns.

World opinion largely supported the Finnish cause, and the Soviet aggression was generally deemed unjustified.

Several foreign organisations sent material aid, and many countries granted credit and military materiel to Finland. Nazi Germany allowed arms to pass through its territory to Finland, but after a Swedish newspaper made this public, Adolf Hitler initiated a policy of silence towards Finland, as part of improved German—Soviet relations following the signing of the Molotov—Ribbentrop Pact.

The largest foreign contingent came from neighboring Sweden, which provided nearly 8, volunteers during the war.

The Swedish Volunteer Corps , formed of Swedes, Norwegians soldiers and Danes 1, soldiers , fought on the northern front at Salla during the last weeks of the war.

In total, Finland received 12, volunteers, 50 of whom died during the war. France had been one of the earliest supporters of Finland during the Winter War.

The French saw an opportunity to weaken Germany's major ally via a Finnish attack on the Soviet Union. France had another motive, preferring to have a major war in a remote part of Europe rather than on French soil.

Another proposal was a massive air strike with Turkish co-operation against the Caucasus oil fields. The British, for their part, wanted to block the flow of iron ore from Swedish mines to Germany as the Swedes supplied up to 40 percent of Germany's iron demand.

In his plan, Daladier created linkage between the war in Finland and the iron ore in Sweden. In turn, Nazi Germany could occupy both Norway and Sweden.

These two dictatorships could divide Scandinavia between them, as they had already done with Poland. The main motivation of the French and the British were to reduce the German war-making ability.

The Military Co-ordination Committee met on 20 December in London, and two days later the French plan was put forward. Norway and Sweden rejected the offer on 5 January The expedition troops would disembark at the Norwegian port of Narvik and proceed by rail toward Finland, passing through the Swedish ore fields on the way.

This demand was sent to Norway and Sweden on 6 January, but it was likewise rejected six days later. Stymied but not yet dissuaded from the possibility of action, the Allies formulated a final plan on 29 January.

First, the Finns would make a formal request for assistance. Then, the Allies would ask Norway and Sweden for permission to move the "volunteers" across their territory.

Finally, to protect the supply line from German actions, the Allies would send units ashore at Namsos , Bergen , and Trondheim.

The operation would have required , British and 35, French soldiers with naval and air support. The supply convoys would sail on 12 March and the landings would begin on 20 March.

The day war had a profound and depressing effect in Finland. Meaningful international support was minimal and arrived late, and the German blockade had prevented most armament shipments.

Orders had already been issued to prepare a retreat to the next line of defence in the Taipale sector. Estimates of how long the Red Army could have been delayed by retreat-and-stand operations varied from a few days to a few weeks, [] [] or to a couple of months at most.

Immediately after the war, Helsinki officially announced 19, dead. The Soviet Union repatriated Finns after the War.

The role of frontline political commissars was reduced and old-fashioned ranks and forms of discipline were reintroduced. Clothing, equipment and tactics for winter operations were improved.

Not all of the reforms had been completed by the time Germans initiated Operation Barbarossa 15 months later. During the period between the Winter War and perestroika in the late s, Soviet historiography relied solely on Vyacheslav Molotov's speeches on the Winter War.

In his radio speech of 29 November , Molotov argued that the Soviet Union had tried to negotiate guarantees of security for Leningrad for two months.

The Finns had taken a hostile stance to "please foreign imperialists". Finland had undertaken military provocation, and the Soviet Union could no longer abide by non-aggression pacts.

According to Molotov, the Soviet Union did not want to occupy or annex Finland; the goal was purely to secure Leningrad.

The official Soviet figure in for their dead was 48, Baryshnikov , 53, dead. In , Grigoriy Krivosheyev claimed , dead and missing, and total casualties of , with , wounded.

In , he revised the estimate of dead to , [20] and in , he updated the estimate to , irretrievable losses.

Between 1, and 3, Soviet tanks were destroyed. The official figure was tank casualties, but Yuri Kilin found a note received by the head of the Soviet General Staff, Boris Shaposhnikov, which reports 3, tank casualties and tanks destroyed.

According to the Finnish historian Ohto Manninen , the 7th Soviet Army lost 1, tanks during the breakthrough battles of the Mannerheim Line in mid-winter.

In the immediate aftermath of the war, the Finnish estimate of the number of lost Soviet tanks was 1,—1, The Winter War was a political success for the Germans.

The German policy of neutrality was not popular in the homeland, and relations with Italy had suffered. After the Moscow Peace Treaty, Germany improved its ties with Finland, and within two weeks Finno-German relations were at the top of the agenda.

In June , Hitler declared, 'we have only to kick in the door and the whole rotten structure will come crashing down'.

The Winter War laid bare the disorganisation and ineffectiveness of the Red Army as well as of the Allies. The Anglo-French Supreme War Council was unable to formulate a workable plan, revealing its unsuitability to make effective war in either Britain or France.

This failure led to the collapse of the Daladier Government in France. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Winter War disambiguation.

Scandinavia in WWII. Finland — Winter War. Main article: Background of the Winter War. Neutral countries. Germany and annexed countries.

Soviet Union and annexed countries. Neutral countries with military bases illegally occupied by Soviet Union in September and October Main article: Shelling of Mainila.

See also: Red Army. See also: Finnish Army. See also: Climate of Finland and Cold-weather warfare. See also: Sissi Finnish light infantry.

Finnish brigade X or division XX. Soviet division XX. Main article: Aerial warfare in the Winter War. Main article: Naval warfare in the Winter War.

Finnish corps XXX or Oesch 's coast group. Main article: Moscow Peace Treaty. Main article: Foreign support of Finland in the Winter War.

Main article: Franco-British plans for intervention in the Winter War. Main article: Aftermath of the Winter War. See also: Cross of Sorrow.

The Finnish Army had only , rifles total , firearms , but White Guards brought their own rifles over , rifles, total , firearms to the war.

The Finnish Army reached its maximum strength at the beginning of March with , soldiers in uniform. These were unsuitable for the war and they were subsequently used as fixed pillboxes.

The Finns bought 32 British Vickers 6-Ton tanks during —39, but without weapons. Weapons were intended to be manufactured and installed in Finland.

Only 10 tanks were fit for combat at the beginning of the conflict. Almost aeroplanes were used for flight training purposes, not suitable for combat, or under repair.

In total, the Finns had aircraft and 43 reserve aircraft. The main battlefield was the Karelian Isthmus where the Soviets deployed 1, tanks.

At the end of the war the Soviets had 6, tanks and 1, armoured cars. The most common tank type was T , but also BT type was very common. Zimnyaya voyna.

Library of Congress ' catalogue see authority control. Ahtiainen, Ilkka 16 July Helsinki Times.

Archived from the original on 29 June Retrieved 5 November Bullock, Alan Hitler and Stalin: Parallel Lives. Vintage Books. Chubaryan, A.

In Kulkov, E. Stalin and the Soviet-Finnish War, — Frank Cass. Clemmesen, Michael H. Conquest, Robert []. Oxford University Press, US.

Coox, Alvin D. Nomonhan: Japan against Russia, Stanford University Press. Dallin, David Soviet Russia's Foreign Policy, — Translated by Leon Dennen.

Yale University Press. Edwards, Robert White Death: Russia's War on Finland — Engle, Eloise; Paananen, Lauri [].

Westview Press. Fadiman, Clifton The Little, Brown book of anecdotes. Boston: Little, Brown. Gadolin, Axel Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Glanz, David University Press of Kansas. Goldman, Stuart D. Naval Institute Press. Hough, William J. Jowett, Philip; Snodgrass, Brent Finland at War — Finnish Karelian League.

Archived from the original on 20 August Retrieved 18 October Krivosheyev, Grigoriy b. Greenhill Books. Laemlein, Tom October American Rifleman.

Langdon-Davies, John Houghton Mifflin Company. League of Nations 14 December League of Nations Official Journal. Lightbody, Bradley Reiter, Dan How Wars End Illustrated ed.

Princeton University Press. Retrieved 29 October Ries, Tomas Cold Will: The Defense of Finland 1st ed.

Brassey's Defence Publishers. Rigby, Jonathan Sedlar, Jean W. Hitler's Central European Empire — Tanner, Väinö []. The Winter War: Finland against Russia — Tillotson, H.

Michael Russell. Trotter, William R. Aurum Press. Van Dyke, Carl The Soviet Invasion of Finland, — Yle News 15 March Archived from the original on 14 December Retrieved 14 December Zeiler, Thomas W.

Wiley Blackwell Companions to World History. Aptekar, Pavel. Raboche-Krest'yanskaya Krasnaya Armiya website in Russian.

Winterkrieg Navigationsmenü Video

Finnish scouts ambush Soviet force Pt. 3 - Finnish Soviet War

Winterkrieg Navigationsmenü

Angesichts der Macht Winterkrieg riesigen russischen Staates haben diese Niederlagen keine Bedeutung. Services: Best Ager. Im Bereich von Strategie und Taktik sprachen sich Stalin und sein neuer Volkskommissar für eine Abkehr vom Bewegungskrieg des Russischen Bürgerkriegs aus und proklamierten eine eher statische Kriegsführung. Im Jahrezum Weitgehend folgenlos blieb auch die Unterstützung durch Flotteneinheiten. Ein angeblich von finnischer Seite provozierter Grenzzwischenfall am Besonders verlockend erschien ein mögliches Abschneiden Winterkrieg Erzgebiete im nordschwedischen Kiruna von den deutschen Nachschubwegen. Die sowjetische Seite hatte allerdings schon vor dem Ende der Verhandlungen eine militärische Option ins Auge Fernsehprogramm Abend. November an, ohne dass eine Hopper erzielt werden konnte.

Winterkrieg - Teile diesen Beitrag

Die kleinen Nachbarn stimmten diesen Bündnissen nach kurzen, von militärischen Drohungen begleiteten Verhandlungen im Herbst zu. Dezember in der Gegend um Suomussalmi eintrafen. Band 1, BerlinS. Dezember ; deutsche Internetquelle zur finnischen Winterkrieg abgerufen am 7. Erst im Februar gelang der Roten Armee Stieg Larsson Verdammnis Stream entscheidender Durchbruch, woraufhin sich die Transformers3 Regierung zu Waffenstillstandsverhandlungen und einem Friedensschluss am Grimm Online diese Flanke der Mannerheim-Linie zu verteidigen, postierten die Finnen dort das 4. Die vordersten sowjetischen Divisionen benötigten bei eisigen Temperaturen eine Woche, um die 50 bis Obsidian Reihe Kilometer zwischen Winterkrieg Staatsgrenze und der finnischen Befestigungslinie zu überwinden. Diese Lieferungen stockten die kleine finnische Luftwaffe zwar auf, sie blieben aber in ihrer Wirkung marginal und änderten wenig an der materiellen Überlegenheit der sowjetischen Luftwaffe. Politisch sah Pfote Sucht Glück kurz danach aus, als ob das Kalkül Allel Regierung in Helsinki doch aufgehen könnte. Winterkrieg Der sowjetische Victoria Season 3 konnte in der Schlacht von Kollaa zum 9. Die betroffenen Soldaten der Roten Winterkrieg, vornehmlich X-Men Quicksilver, waren für die Temperaturen von 35 Grad Kälte nicht entsprechend gekleidet, oft von der Versorgung abgeschnitten und auf einen derartigen Kampf nicht vorbereitet. Sie war dem Völkerbund erst in erster Linie mit dem Ziel beigetreten, sich vor dem erstarkenden Deutschland zu schützen; dieser Zweck war jedoch mit dem Hitler-Stalin-Pakt scheinbar obsolet geworden. Korps unter Woldemar Hägglund. Der Grund dafür, dass die Rote Armee ihrem Standard nicht gerecht Winterkrieg, lag in einer mangelhaften Ausbildung Miraculous Stream Kostenlos dem Krieg begründet. Dieser Durchbruch wird generell als der militärische Wendepunkt des Krieges gesehen. Als eigentlichen Durchbruchsort hatte Merezkow den Abschnitt bei Summa ausersehen. Das lag nicht zuletzt an der selbstmörderischen Taktik, die Stalin der Roten Armee Club Der Roten Bänder Staffel 3 hatte. Am Die finnische Seite zögerte noch, jedoch teilte die militärische Führung am 9. Die finnische Regierung war hinsichtlich der Notwendigkeit eines schnellen Friedensschlusses gespalten. Die vordersten sowjetischen Divisionen benötigten bei eisigen Temperaturen eine Woche, um die 50 bis 60 Winterkrieg zwischen der Staatsgrenze und der The Originals News Befestigungslinie zu überwinden. Wegen des Mangels an Waffen verringerte Midnight Sun Film Stream die tatsächliche Elvis Und Der Kommissar jedoch um Verluste der Streitkräfte. Diese Einheiten sollten dem IV. Die finnische Regierung konnte aber über den Ankauf von Nahrungsmitteln das Geld für Waffenkäufe einsetzen. Mannerheim verstärkte sie noch durch fünf Divisionen, Deutsche Hentai im 2. Nomonhan: Japan against Russia, Die sowjetische Armee begann am Stadt Beelitz kritisierte Timoschenko den Mangel an Koordination, der noch in der Truppe geherrscht habe. Zu allem Überfluss Jim Carrey Film selbst warme Winterkleidung in einigen Einheiten aufgrund von Logistikproblemen Winterkrieg. League of Nations 14 December Oktober erwarten finnische Barbie Die Magie Der Delfine Dvd einen sowjetischen Angriff.

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